当前位置:天晋娱乐网 >> 两性 >> 正文

【TEM4】【慢速英语】2.4VOA原文

时间:2018-02-04 22:05:33 作者:英语佳苑 阅读: 9532 点赞: 2 分享: 40

1.Experts: Colleges Should Invest More in Research

Vaccines. Popular sports drinks. Computers.

Each one of these subjects is different from the others. But all three have something in common: they were all invented by researchers working at a college or university.

Scientific invention and cultural exploration have been connected with higher educationinstitutionsfor hundreds of years.

Victoria McGovern says this is because colleges and universities would be limiting themselves if they only taught existing knowledge. McGovern is a senior program officer with the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, an organization that supports medical research in the United States and Canada.

McGovern argues that the search for new knowledge is what leads to greater discoveries and better education.

"It's a very good idea to connect the discovery of new things to the teaching of new students," she told VOA, "because you don't want people who come out of their education thinking that the world around them is full of solved problems. You want people to come out of an education excited about solving problems themselves."

Dr. William Hahn, who is working on malaria research, walks through a research lab at the University of Washington's UW Medicine South Lake Union Campus.

But she notes that research costs money and most colleges and universities do not have a lot of extra money for that purpose. Most schools have limited budgets and many competing goals and needs.

So a big part of being a researcher at a college or university is asking for financial support from other places, McGovern says. Such places include private companies and organizations like hers, as well as local and national governments.

The National Institutes of Health, or NIH, is one example. The NIH is the main government agency in the U.S. that supports medical and public health research. The NIH provides about $32 billion a year for health research.

Researchers mustapplyfor this financial support by writing agrantproposal explaining the goals and processes involved in their work. McGovern says the application process for grant money is highly competitive. It can be very difficult for some researchers, especially those who are not skilled at expressing themselves in writing.

"In day to day life, you get too busy...to think about the big picture," McGovern said. "How often do you, in your personal life, say ‘Here's what I want to be doing exactly one year from now?' When you write a grant, that's what you're talking about."

McGovern added: "It's hard for individuals, sometimes, to tell whether what they've written down is the best writing that they could have done."

Kristine Kulage argues that it is now more difficult than ever for university researchers to getfunding. Kulage is the director of research and scholarly development at the Columbia University School of Nursing in New York City.

She has been working in university research for 20 years. She says that the grant application process has only gotten longer and more complex.

U.S. Sen. Patty Murray visits with lab technician Kennidy Takehara in a research lab at the University of Washington's UW Medicine South Lake Union Campus.

Kulage told VOA, "Researchers don't have time toconducttheir research, write their grants and learn how to use all of these new systems through which they have tosubmittheir grants."

She said in addition to all those responsibilities, researchers must make sure they arecompliantwithregulations.

"There are so many rules now...It takes individuals who are now trained as research administrators to know what those rules are...And know whether or not the rules are being followed," she said.

Kulage suggests that schools now must do more to support their researchers if they want to successfully earn grant money. Last November, she published a study of what happened when Columbia's School of Nursing chose to better support its researchers.

The report studied how, between 2012 and 2016, the school chose to invest $127,000 in the creation of a support system. This system includes employing administrators to complete necessary application documents, freeing researchers to spend more time on their research.

The system also provides areviewprocess in which researchers go through several steps before they submit a grant proposal. First, researchers must write a short, clear description of the aims of their project. Researchers often have difficulty explaining their work to people with no special knowledge of the subject matter, Kulage said. So, Columbia administrators with no involvement in the research read the description and offer criticism.

Other researchers also review the description to offer their ideas about whether or not the goals of the research can be reached.

Finally, after changes are made to the proposal, administrators and other researchers meet with the grant writers. They then hold a review meeting similar to what the grant-writers will face once they have submitted their proposal.

Normally, the group offering the grant will meet with the proposal writers and ask them questions. They expect the writers to defend their proposal.

In thispracticemeeting, the grant writers get a chance to think about their project more and better prepare their defense of it.

Kulage says the efforts of Columbia's Schools of Nursing had clear results. Over the five years studied, the proposals that went through the review process were about twice as likely to be accepted as those that did not. The Columbia School of Nursing's investment of $127,000 led to $3 million in grant funding.

McGovern and Kulage both agree that applying for research funding alone is very difficult. So, even having one other person read a proposal and give their opinions can be very important to its success.

Kulage admits that large companies carry out a lot of research and development. But their research usually relates to success in their industry. University researchers are different. They have the freedom to take risks on possibly unpopular ideas.

Those risks can often lead to important discoveries that colleges and universities have a responsibility to share with the world, she says.

I'm Pete Musto. And I'm Susan Shand.

Pete Musto reported this for VOA Learning English. Mario Ritter was the editor. We want to hear from you. In what ways do universities in your country support their own researchers? How complex is applying for a research grant? Write to us in the Comments Section or on 51VOA.COM.

________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

institution(s) –n.an established organization

apply–v.to ask formally for something, such as a job, admission to a school or a loan, usually in writing

grant–n.an amount of money that is given to someone by a government or a company to be used for a particular purpose, such as scientific research

funding–n.an amount of money that is used for a special purpose

conduct–v.to plan and do something, such as an activity

submit–v.to give a document, proposal, or piece of writing to someone so that it can be considered or approved

compliant–adj.agreeing with a set of rules, standards, or requirements

regulation(s) –n.an official rule or law that says how something should be done

review –n.an act of carefully looking at or examining the quality or condition of something or someone

practice–n.a regular occasion at which you do something again and again in order to become better at it

2.Rats!

Now, Words and Their Stories, a weekly program from VOA Learning English.

现在是每周一期的VOA英语学习“Words and Their Stories”栏目

Today we will be talking about a hated but misunderstood animal – the rat.

The sight of a rat might frighten you. Or it might make you sick to your stomach.

Well, perhaps not everyone.

今天我们将来谈论一个被讨厌但又被误解的动物――老鼠。它们的目光可能会使你感到恐惧或者它们甚至会让你觉得反胃。但或许不是每一个人都讨厌它。

In some countries, dishes made with rat meat can be rare and sometimes pricey -- what we call adelicacy.

Plus, rats are useful. With their extreme sense of smell, people can train giant rats to find land mines and eventuberculosis.

在一些国家里,用老鼠肉制成的菜肴比较罕见而且有些很昂贵,我们称之为美味珍肴。另外老鼠也是极为有利的,因为他们极其灵敏的嗅觉人们可以训练巨鼠去找寻地雷甚至嗅到结核病。

But do these things make people love rats?

No. For the most part, rats are not beloved animals.

For starters, they're not cute. They have pointed noses and long, thin tails.

但是这些事情会让人们对老鼠产生好感吗?

不,大多数情况下老鼠不是一个被人偏爱的动物。首先,它们并不可爱。而且他们有着尖尖的鼻子和长而细的尾巴。

They can eat and damage crops. And the world has long blamed rats for spreading diseases, like the Bubonic plague in Europe during the 14th century. It does not help yourreputationwhen you are accused of killing at least one-third of the population of an entire continent.

他们吃光并且损坏作物。世界上长期来都指责老鼠们会传播疾病,就像十四世纪在欧洲传播的鼠疫。当你被指控杀了整个大陆至少三分之一的人口时,这些小事并不能够对它们的声誉起到任何作用。

But, perhaps we shouldn't be so quick to judge.

Scientists now think that it was most likely not rats, but another rodent, thegerbil, that caused the Bubonic plague. They suspect that gerbils traveled to Europe from Asia, some along the Silk Road that traders used. But these animals were not carrying spices and silk, but rather disease.

但是,或许我们不应该这么快的就下结论。

科学家现在认为,引起鼠疫的可能不是老鼠而是另一种啮齿动物,沙鼠。他们怀疑沙鼠们有些沿着商人们常用的丝绸之路从亚洲迁移到欧洲。但是这些小动物们不带香料和丝绸,而是给人们带来疾病。

Today, however, gerbils arepetsin many American homes. Teachers sometimes keep them in classrooms for students to care for. Rats, not so much.

Such is the difficult life of an unwanted, misunderstood animal.

然而,沙鼠们现在已经在美国的家庭中成为宠物。教师们有时候也会把他们留在教室中让学生们照顾。但老鼠却没有这样的待遇。

老鼠作为一种不被需要的,被误解的动物,只能这样艰难的生活。

So, scientists can debate the role of rats in spreading disease. But the fact that rats have a really bad reputation in American English is not debatable. It's the truth. None of our rat expressions means anything good.

所以科学家们可以向世人辩解老鼠在传播疾病这一方面的角色,但是事实是老鼠的确在美国人,英国人中有着不可辩解的极差的声誉。这的确是真的,我们为老鼠的声明起不到任何作用。

The simplest way we use this word is to simply say, "Rats!" Americans often use this expression when something goes wrong. The term is common andpolite-- unlike some of our other expressions we might use when we are angry.

我们使用这个单词最简单方法就是说:“老鼠!”美国人当什么事情出现问题时经常用这种表达。这个词是比较常见而且有礼貌的,不像一些我们会用在我们生气的时候的表达用语。

As we said earlier, rats may have a good sense of smell. Butsmelling a ratisn't good. When we say, "I smell a rat!" we suspect that something is wrong. If you feel that someone hasbetrayedyou, you can say that you smell a rat.

正如我们之前所说,老鼠有着极强的嗅觉。但是“smelling a rat " 不好。当我们说“我闻到了一只老鼠”其实是说,我们怀疑有些事情出现了问题。如果你感到有人背叛了你你可以说你闻到了一只老鼠。

Apack ratis not good, either. This is a person who keeps useless things. And worse, they live with all the stuff they have collected.

一个pack rat 也不好。这是指一个人总是收藏着无用的东西。更糟糕的是,他可能生活在他所有收集的东西堆里。

So, calling someone a "rat" is never an expression of respect or affection. When describing people, a "rat" is someone who is not loyal or cannot be trusted. A ratsnitcheson someone to anauthorityfigure – a parent, a teacher, a police officer.

所以叫某个人老鼠从来不是一个表示尊重或者喜欢的表达方式。当我们形容别人的时候,“老鼠”是用来形容不忠诚的或者不值得信任的人。不忠之人会打某人的小报告对权威之人,像父母,老师,警察。

As a verb, the word "rat" isn't good either.

To rat on someonemeans to betray a loved one, friend or someone else you know. When you rat on someone, youtell onthem.

作为一个动词," rat " 也不好.

To rat on someone 意味着背叛亲人朋友或者你认识的人。当你背叛其他人的时候,你告他们的状。

Let's say you know that your brother ate the last piece of cake when he wasn't supposed to. You rat on him to your parents. Or maybe you rat on a colleague at work. Ratting on people, ortattling on them, will not win you friends. It just makes you a rat. Or worse -- arat fink.

假设你知道你的哥哥并不应该去吃最后一块蛋糕。你给爸妈打他的小报告,或者你在工作中打同事的小报告。打别人的小报告或者说别人的闲话,都不能能够让你赢得朋友。这只会让你成为鼠辈之人,甚至成为一个卑鄙小人。

The words tattling andtattletalesare often used for children. Butratting someone outor snitching on them can be for any age.

单词tattling 和tattletales 通常用在孩子身上。但是嘲笑某人或者打某人的小报告适用于任何年龄。

No matter what your age, nobody likes to be called a rat, a snitch or a tattletale. However, it is a little different when the police are involved.

不管你是什么年纪,没有人喜欢被叫做鼠辈之人,或者告密者,搬弄是非的人。然而,当警方介入时会有一点不同。

Let's say you have information about a crime. When the police begin asking questions, you decide to keep that information to yourself. You may feel you don't want to rat on someone else.

假设你有一些关于一个罪犯的信息。但是当警察开始询问问题时,你决定不把这些信息告诉他们。你觉得你不想去告发别人。

However, nobody would blame you for sharing information with the police if it helps them catch a criminal. Well, another criminal might not approve. Most criminals have a differentcode of conductamong themselves: You don't rat on fellow criminals to the police.

然而,没有人会会因为你分享一个可能会帮助警察抓住罪犯的信息而指责你。但是那个罪犯可能不赞同。很多嫌疑人在他们自己的心中都有着不同的行为准则:你不能在警察面前告发你的同伙。

In old police television shows and movies, you may hear one criminal criticize another who snitched to the police. They may say, "You dirty rat!"

在以前的一些关于警察电视节目和电影中,你可能会听到一个罪犯辱骂另一个告发他的人:“你这个卑鄙小人!”

You would not say that a hardened, possibly violent criminal tattled on another ... unless you were trying to be funny.

你不会说一个铁石心肠甚至还有点暴力倾向的罪犯告发另外一个人,除非你只是想开个玩笑。

So, when using the word "rat" in English know that the meaning is never a good one. But in life, maybe we should take another look at rats and give them a chance.

And that brings us to the end of this Words and Their Stories.

所以,当我们在英文中用“rat” 这个单词的时候它从来不意味着好的意思。但是在生活中,我们或许可以从另一种角度来看待老鼠然后给它们一个机会。

Do rats have a good reputation in your country? Please tell us! It would be nice to know there is a place on this planet where saying "Rats!" is a good thing.

在你的国家老鼠有好的声誉吗?请告诉我们!能够让我们知道在这个星球的某一个地方说“老鼠!”是好的一方也是很有趣的。

I'm Anna Matteo.

安娜. 马里奥为你报道。

"You won't tell me where you've been. Whiskey running down your chin. I smell a rat, baby. I smell a rat, baby. You better watch out. I smell a rat, baby."

Anna Matteo wrote this story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor. The song at the end is Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton singing "I Smell a Rat."

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

delicacy–n.a food that people like to eat because it is special or rare

tuberculosis–n.a serious disease that mainly affects the lungs : also called TB

reputation–n.overall quality or character as seen or judged by people in general

pet–n.a domesticated animal kept for pleasure rather than utility

polite–adj.having or showing good manners or respect for other people

betray–v.to hurt (someone who trusts you, such as a friend or relative) by not giving help or by doing something morally wrong

snitch–v.to tell someone in authority (such as the police or a teacher) about something wrong that someone has done

authority–n.the power to give orders or make decisions : the power or right to direct or control someone or something

code of conduct–n.an agreement on rules of behavior for the members of that group or organization

3.Glacier Bay: A Land Reborn

This week in our travels through America's national parks, we revisit the state of Alaska. The northernmost state is home to eight major national parks.

Today, we visit one of its most famous parks – Glacier Bay. This huge park in the southeastern part of the state covers more than 1 million hectares of Alaskan wilderness. It includes mountains, glaciers, fjords, and even rainforests.

Glacier Bay supports hundreds of kinds of animals, including manyspeciesof birds, fish, bears, whales and sea lions.

As its name suggests, much of Glacier Bay National Park is covered byglaciers. A glacier is a large area of ice that moves slowly down a slope or valley, or over a wide area of land. Glaciers cover more than 5,000 square kilometers of the park.

Glacial ice has shaped the land over the last seven million years. The glaciers found in the park today are what remains from an ice advance known as the Little Ice Age. That period began about 4,000 years ago.

A land reborn

During the Little Ice Age, the cold weather caused the ice to grow and advance. That growth continued until the 1700s, when the climate began to warm. The hotter temperatures caused the ice to start melting. That melting led the huge glacier to separate into more than 1,000 different glaciers.

A fjord in Glacier Bay National Park

The extremely tall andjaggedmountains seen in Glacier Bay National Park were formed by the ice advancing and then melting over time. The melting of the ice also created water that filled in and created the manyfjordswithin the park. Fjords are narrow parts of the ocean that sit between cliffs or mountains.

The huge amounts of water from the melted ice killed off many kinds of plants.Vegetationreturned to the area over the next 200 years. The regrowth in plants also brought back many animals to the land. This return of life to Glacier Bay is why it is sometimes called "a land reborn."

A people of tradition

There is evidence that people have lived in the area for several thousands of years. Glacier Bay is the homeland of the Huna Tlingit people. The Tlingit are an Alaskan Native tribe. They live throughout southeastern Alaska. They began settling in the Glacier Bay area after the last ice age, once the glaciers began toretreat.

The Huna Tlingit tribe of Glacier Bay

Today, the Tlingit people live a modern life. But they also practice traditionsuniqueto their culture. In the past, the Huna Tlingit harvested gull eggs every year. Gulls are large gray and white birds that live near the ocean. Gull eggs are an important type of food for the Huna Tlingit. Family harvest trips served as a way to keep ties with their homeland and to pass on stories, moral codes, and cultural traditions to the younger generation.

In the 1960s, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act forced them to stop collecting gull eggs.

Together with the National Park Service, however, they have worked to create a sustainable way for them to continue practicing this tradition.

Discovery and protection

One of the first major expeditions to the area took place in 1794. Lieutenant Joseph Whidbey arrived near Glacier Bay aboard the HMS Discovery, a British Royal Navy ship. The expedition was led by Captain George Vancouver.

At that time, thebaywas still almost completely filled with ice. The crew described the scene as "acompactsheet of ice as far as the eye could distinguish."

The large ice wall created by the front of a Glacier

In 1879 thenaturalistJohn Muir visited the area to do research. He found that glacial ice had melted back almost 50 kilometers, and had formed a bay.

After his visit, Muir and other conservationists urged Congress to protect this special area.

In 1925, President Calvin Coolidge made Glacier Bay a national monument. It did not become an official national park, however, until 1980.

In 1992, Glacier Bay became part of a huge World Heritage Site along the border of Canada and the United States. The 9.7 million-hectare site is the largest internationally protected area in the world.

Coastal wildlife

One-fifth of Glacier Bay National park is ocean water. And, no point within the park is more than 50 kilometers from the coast. Most animals living here depend on the water or shoreline.

Glacier Bay is home to brown bears and black bears. They are found in the forests, as well as along the coastline. They feed on berries and plants found in the woods. They also feed on the fish found in the waters.

Humpback whales also feed on fish in Glacier Bay's waters. Whales are large mammals that live in the ocean. Humpbacks can weigh more than 35,000 kilograms. They come to Glacier Bay every summer for one main reason: food. They feed on small fish in the water. They eat more than 450 kilograms of food each day. They remain in Glacier Bay for about five months each year.

A breaching Humpback Whale in Glacier Bay

There are also 281 species of birds in Glacier Bay. These include gulls, guillemots, puffins, murrelets, and cormorants. Many of these birds make nests on cliffs. They eat small fish and other sea life.

Other animals found in the park include moose, mountain goats, Stellar sea lions, Harbor seals, Harbor porpoises, and sea otters.

Exploring the Park

Glacier Bay is a popular place for people searching for adventure. Some visitors choose to explore the park by kayak. The small, narrow boats offer visitors a chance to experience the park's many fjords and its hundreds of kilometers of coastline.

Exploring Glacier Bay by kayak

Hiking and camping are also popular activities in the park. But, hikers and campers must have respect for the harsh and remote environment. Weather and water conditions can be extreme. Food can also be limited in this area. There is only one official campground, located in Bartlett Cove. But camping is permitted along any of the shores or forests found in the park. This kind of camping is called backcountry camping.

Another popular way to visit the park is by boat or ship. Cruise ships and tour boats make regular trips into the park. Passengers are able to see the park's glaciers up close. These glaciers are always changing. Visitors may witness huge pieces of ice breaking apart from the glacier. This is known as "calving." When the ice falls into the water, it creates a loud, thunder-like noise.

From glacial fjords to mountain peaks, Glacier Bay holds some of the continent's most awe-inspiringnatural wonders. It is a land reborn, and a place that continues to change with time.

I'm Phil Dierking.

and I'm Ashley Thompson

Phil Dierking wrote this report for Learning English, with materials from the National Park Service. ­­­­­Ashley Thompson was the editor.

Who do you think should control public lands? We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section or on 51VOA.COM.

_____________________________________________________

Words in This Story

bay– n.a large area of water that is part of an ocean or lake and partly surrounded by land

compact– adj.closely or firmly packed or joined together

fjord-n.a narrow part of the ocean between cliffs or steep hills or mountains

glacier–n.a very large area of ice that moves slowly down a slope or valley or over a wide area of land

inspiring–adj. causing people to want to do or create something or to lead better lives

jagged–adj.causing people to want to do or create something or to lead better lives

kayak–n.a long narrow boat that is pointed at both ends and that is moved by a paddle with two blade

naturalist–n.a person who studies plants and animals as they live in nature

retreat–v.the act or process of moving away

species–n.a group of animals or plants that are similar and can produce young animals or plants

unique–adj.something or someone is unlike anything or anyone else

vegetation–n.plants in general

推荐阅读

很多人为了减肥不吃早餐,却不知道会对身体造成这样的伤害

有调查发现,能做到每天坚持吃早餐的城市女比例仅为35.2%,选择“从来不吃”的人群中,职业女性占多数。据中国营养联盟发起的“全国都市女性早餐健康饮食调查”数据显示,在经济发达地区,快节奏的生活、繁忙的工作让都市女性更容易忽视早餐的重要性,大大增加了女性患上肥胖、心脑血管等病症的几率。下面,就为大家盘点不...

娱乐早知道11063 天前

重庆斯威祝大家情人节快乐

今天是西方传统节日情人节,重庆斯威俱乐部祝大家情人节快乐,官方微博这样写道:“谁说爱情不是面包,谁说足球只是调料,谁说非要孤独到老。祝有情人终成眷属,祝流浪的心都踏上归途……节日快乐!”...

搜达足球快讯2 天前

分清身体衰老四个迹象,坚持这几种抗老的好习惯

随着年龄的增长,皮肤会变得越来越松弛,而且身体总会感觉到比较疲劳,这些症状都说明人体已经开始呈现衰老的情况,坚持做好抗衰老的措施,并且要养成良好的生活习惯,可以避免人体衰老过快,需要养成锻炼的好习惯,每天不要少于半个小时的锻炼时间,并且要坚持有规律的作息习惯。分清身体衰老四个迹象1、不期而至的口干。...

健康长寿百科4 天前

10岁当保姆、15岁成名模,60岁被离婚、蹲监狱,70岁的她却成为美国第二女富豪

在美国,奥普拉•温弗瑞、希拉里•克林顿家喻户晓,是星辉熠熠、令人仰慕和向往的女性,而与她们齐名的还有另一位——玛莎•斯图尔特,也就是我们今天的女主人公。她的故事更具美国梦的特征——“这个贫穷家庭出身的女孩,靠过人的天分和努力成为全美国最富有的女性之一,被称为家政女王,也是美国第一位白手起家致富的女亿...

家人杂志1 天前

《狐狸的夏天》谭松韵垫底,冯波第二,第一身材不输柳岩!

第四,谭松韵饰演的是黎晏书,黎晏书进入顾氏集团工作,与再次遇到了顾瑾昀,也与集团总裁顾承泽擦出了火花,同时与初恋情人顾瑾昀产生了感情纠葛,但最终她与顾承泽走到了一起。第三,王妍之饰演的是韩君瑶, 韩志鹏之女,与黎晏书名义上是姐妹的关系。一直阻挡黎晏书!第二,冯波饰演的是夏梦,黎晏书之母,一个出身于贫...

苞米地那些事3 天前

79平自然清爽北欧风,打破常规有新意

家中大梁横穿室内中心时,你会想方设法掩盖,还是干脆让它成为视觉重点,对于聪明的设计师来说,这反而是展示住宅特色的好机会。这套小户型公寓,设计师运用三面包覆明镜,弱化大梁的压迫感,并将此当做为主要设计核心,室内透过镜面相互照应,衬托出多元材质,同时在视觉上扩大空间。考虑到屋主喜欢自然清爽北欧风,空间以...

有住家装2 天前